The number of policewomen at the time of writing this report makes up about one per cent of the total police force. A strong need is expressed within ANP for more policewomen. Improvements in terms of female friendly infrastructure and a higher level of acceptance of female police within and outside of ANP are more evident now (in 2013) than only three years ago when APPRO conducted a brief study of women in ANP. A number of major challenges remain, however. The detailed findings from this baseline review and research are intended to inform programming and activities by UNDP/LOTFA’s Consortium for the Police Women Mentorship Project (PWMP) to significantly improve the conditions of women in police and pave the way for additional female recruits to ANP.
Afghanistan is particularly vulnerable to falling crop yields caused by glacier retreat, floods, droughts, erratic rainfall and other climate change impacts. While the impacts of climate change will be evident everywhere around the world, the poorest countries such as Afghanistan are likely to be most adversely affected due to inadequate infrastructure, instability – disallowing national efforts in mitigation – and lack resources to mobilize against the adverse impacts of climate change on livelihoods. This report takes stock of the main climate change and food security related issues of Afghanistan, measures taken by various national and international actors to address them, the impact of these measures on selected communities, and the challenges that remain to be addressed through new programming by the Government of Afghanistan and its international donors.
This paper is based on two research projects funded by the World Bank’s International Finance Corporation (IFC) in 2010 and 2011. Through the lens of business licensing reforms, this working paper examines progress and remaining challenges under the economic reconstruction models currently in use by the Government of Afghanistan and its international donors. To this end, the paper compares the procedural steps for business licensing and renewal officially mandated by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry and those actually needed to complete the process. Survey data and resulting analysis then pinpoint areas of continued difficulty for applicants/investors, including bottlenecks, duplicative or unnecessary processes, and opportunities for corrupt practices to emerge and become firmly embedded.
This is the third monitoring report following the baseline study: “Afghanistan: Monitoring Women’s Security in Transition”, published in May 2014. This report examines the impact of the transition of the responsibility for national security from international to Afghan national security forces to establish whether there are grounds for concern regarding the gains made for and by women in Afghanistan since 2001. The findings from this report, and the recommendations based on these findings, are intended to inform programming and action by the Government of Afghanistan, Afghan civil society organizations, and Afghanistan’s international donors in meeting their commitments to gender equality in Afghanistan.
There is much enthusiasm for the linkages between return migration and development. However, this has hardly been researched for low-skilled returnees in a south-south migration context. This research samples a host of returnees among casual labourers in Kabul. The main question is to what extent these low skilled casual labourers have gained from their migration experience upon return in terms of accrued skills and techniques. The hypothesis is that those who are better prepared (circumstance) for their return will have more gains (impacts) from their migration experience upon return. The main conclusion of this study is that despite the many problems that plague Afghanistan’s socio-economic conditions, and the distant prospect of these problems being addressed, the migrants that have gained skills abroad have a significant relative advantage over others without those skills as far as employability. They learned new generic and technical skills, aesthetic values, and the use of tools they were not accustomed to before. Upon return their quality of work is claimed to be better, their employability increased and source of income is less volatile.
This study was undertaken to examine and document the extent to which the National Action Plan for the Women of Afghanistan (NAPWA) has been implemented since coming to effect in 2008 until 2013. The findings from this assessment are intended to contribute to the broader discussion on the transition planned for 2014 and provisions made to protect women’s rights in Afghanistan. The findings are also aimed at assisting the Government of Afghanistan and its international donors in how to best serve the many needs of Afghan women through development programming.
Since 2002 one main focus of the international donor organizations active in Afghanistan has been to address the necessity for closer trade ties between Afghanistan and Central Asian countries. A substantial part of the earlier literature on post-2001 development in Afghanistan is focused on rehabilitating and expanding cross-border transportation infrastructure between Afghanistan and the Central Asian countries, revitalizing key economic sectors in Afghanistan, assisting in the harmonization of border systems, and rationalization of trade agreements to support improved security and governance. Despite these efforts to expand trade with Central Asian countries, Pakistan remains the single largest trade partner and the most convenient source and transit route for much of the imports including arms, fuel, and food for international forces present in Afghanistan.
The research sought to establish whether products from Central Asia, including those originating in Russia, meet the expectations of Afghan importers and, if so, whether Afghan importers would be willing to switch to Central Asian suppliers for higher quality, healthier, and safer products.